Directly...No. Round about way...Install ESX Server (which is based off Linux kernel), then build Windows VM, then install SQL Server. I'm with @ThomasRushton though there are other DBMSs out there beside Oracle that run on Linux, and are much cheaper than Oracle.
If you have to run on Linux, run PostGreSQL. It would certainly be my first port of call if wandering outside of the SQL Server world... In short though, no, there isn't a way that you can get SQL Server to run on Linux *directly*. As others have said, VMs running Windows are an option, but if you have to install Linux on the bare tin, I don't see why you would be allowed to install Windows in a VM...
If you need to store enormous amount of data and the speed is also important, besides Oracle you can use eg. [Greenplum Database] which is good especially for big Data Warehouses and in a Community Edition is free (1 server with 2 logical nodes). You can move anytime to a commercial version for MPP. Btw. it is build upon PostreSQL. :-) Alternatively if you need a real power you can move to [Teradata] which also runs on linux (but the preces are not in hundreds of $ :-) :
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