Split a field into rows and columns - SQL 2005


I have looked at all the forum posts on splitting a field in a SQL 2005 table into rows and columns and must say I am rather overwhelmed and confused with all the expert advice and I dont know which one to use.

Hopefully I will be forgiven for asking help in this area again.

My client has users that should be allowed to see values (members) in a dimension table "DEPARTMENT" based on a 'dimension values filter' populated on the user's card (record).

The user's card shows allowed filters in the following way:


These are all values of one dimension, for instance departments and the individual values are not all of the same character length. (There are therefore two 'parameters' here: in and between)

The string above then means: access to DP1100,DP1113, between DP1200 and DP1250, DP2300, between DP2360 and DP2366, DP65400, DP777777

The aim is select values from table DEPARTMENT where the values are in a list of values from the filter

So ideally that filter should then translate into a temp table (Stored procedure? Function?) which looks like this:

**Value 1   Value 2**                    
DP1200      DP1250                     
DP2360      DP2366                    

I would need a function that can be applied to all the filter fields in the user record, every time the select script checks for valid, allowed values for the user.

Help would be much appreciated!

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asked Jan 26, 2010 at 04:16 PM in Default

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Jan 26, 2010 at 06:01 PM TG
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3 answers: sort voted first

declare @dept table ( dept varchar(10) )

insert into @dept (dept)
select 'DP1100' union all
select 'DP1112' union all
select 'DP1113' union all
select 'DP1200' union all
select 'DP1210' union all
select 'DP1220' union all
select 'DP1230' union all
select 'DP2300'

declare @usercard varchar(100)

select @usercard = 'DP1100|DP1113|DP1200..DP1250|DP2300|DP2360..DP2366|DP65400|DP777777'

select d.*
from @dept d
inner join
select start_value = case when charindex('..', Data) <> 0
then left(Data, charindex('..', Data) - 1)
else Data
end_value = case when charindex('..', Data) <> 0
then right(Data, len(Data) - charindex('..', Data) - 1)
else Data
from dbo.fnParseList('|', @usercard)
) f on d.dept >= start_value
and d.dept <= end_value



(7 row(s) affected)

get fnParseList here http://www.sqlteam.com/forums/topic.asp?TOPIC_ID=76033&#315323

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answered Jan 27, 2010 at 12:05 AM

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Squirrel 1
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With the right kind of splitter and a little help from a lesser known function, this problem becomes fairly easy to solve.

DECLARE @SomeString VARCHAR(8000); SELECT @SomeString = 'DP1100|DP1113|DP1200..DP1250|DP2300|DP2360..DP2366|DP65400|DP777777';


There are substantial performance problems with splitters that use WHILE loops or loops formed by recursive CTEs. With that in mind, please consider using the following splitter. It's long because it's fully documented with revision history, credits, usage examples, and multiple sections of test code. It executes at nearly CLR speed.

CREATE FUNCTION [dbo].[DelimitedSplit8K] /********************************************************************************************************************** Purpose: Split a given string at a given delimiter and return a list of the split elements (items).

Notes: 1. Leading a trailing delimiters are treated as if an empty string element were present. 2. Consecutive delimiters are treated as if an empty string element were present between them. 3. Except when spaces are used as a delimiter, all spaces present in each element are preserved.

Returns: iTVF containing the following: ItemNumber = Element position of Item as a BIGINT (not converted to INT to eliminate a CAST) Item = Element value as a VARCHAR(8000)

Statistics on this function may be found at the following URL: http://www.sqlservercentral.com/Forums/Topic1101315-203-4.aspx

CROSS APPLY Usage Examples and Tests: --===================================================================================================================== -- TEST 1: -- This tests for various possible conditions in a string using a comma as the delimiter. The expected results are -- laid out in the comments --===================================================================================================================== --===== Conditionally drop the test tables to make reruns easier for testing. -- (this is NOT a part of the solution) IF OBJECT_ID('tempdb..#JBMTest') IS NOT NULL DROP TABLE #JBMTest ; --===== Create and populate a test table on the fly (this is NOT a part of the solution). -- In the following comments, "b" is a blank and "E" is an element in the left to right order. -- Double Quotes are used to encapsulate the output of "Item" so that you can see that all blanks -- are preserved no matter where they may appear. SELECT * INTO #JBMTest FROM ( --# & type of Return Row(s) SELECT 0, NULL UNION ALL --1 NULL SELECT 1, SPACE(0) UNION ALL --1 b (Empty String) SELECT 2, SPACE(1) UNION ALL --1 b (1 space) SELECT 3, SPACE(5) UNION ALL --1 b (5 spaces) SELECT 4, ',' UNION ALL --2 b b (both are empty strings) SELECT 5, '55555' UNION ALL --1 E SELECT 6, ',55555' UNION ALL --2 b E SELECT 7, ',55555,' UNION ALL --3 b E b SELECT 8, '55555,' UNION ALL --2 b B SELECT 9, '55555,1' UNION ALL --2 E E SELECT 10, '1,55555' UNION ALL --2 E E SELECT 11, '55555,4444,333,22,1' UNION ALL --5 E E E E E SELECT 12, '55555,4444,,333,22,1' UNION ALL --6 E E b E E E SELECT 13, ',55555,4444,,333,22,1,' UNION ALL --8 b E E b E E E b SELECT 14, ',55555,4444,,,333,22,1,' UNION ALL --9 b E E b b E E E b SELECT 15, ' 4444,55555 ' UNION ALL --2 E (w/Leading Space) E (w/Trailing Space) SELECT 16, 'This,is,a,test.' --E E E E ) d (SomeID, SomeValue) ; --===== Split the CSV column for the whole table using CROSS APPLY (this is the solution) SELECT test.SomeID, test.SomeValue, split.ItemNumber, Item = QUOTENAME(split.Item,'"') FROM #JBMTest test CROSS APPLY dbo.DelimitedSplit8K(test.SomeValue,',') split ; --===================================================================================================================== -- TEST 2: -- This tests for various "alpha" splits and COLLATION using all ASCII characters from 0 to 255 as a delimiter against -- a given string. Note that not all of the delimiters will be visible and some will show up as tiny squares because -- they are "control" characters. More specifically, this test will show you what happens to various non-accented -- letters for your given collation depending on the delimiter you chose. --===================================================================================================================== WITH cteBuildAllCharacters (String,Delimiter) AS ( SELECT TOP 256 'ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789', CHAR(ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY (SELECT NULL))-1) FROM master.sys.all_columns ) SELECT ASCII_Value = ASCII(c.Delimiter), c.Delimiter, split.ItemNumber, Item = QUOTENAME(split.Item,'"') FROM cteBuildAllCharacters c CROSS APPLY dbo.DelimitedSplit8K(c.String,c.Delimiter) split ORDER BY ASCII_Value, split.ItemNumber ;

Other Notes: 1. Optimized for VARCHAR(8000) or less. No testing or error reporting for truncation at 8000 characters is done. 2. Optimized for single character delimiter. Multi-character delimiters should be resolvedexternally from this function. 3. Optimized for use with CROSS APPLY. 4. Does not "trim" elements just in case leading or trailing blanks are intended. 5. If you don't know how a Tally table can be used to replace loops, please see the following... http://www.sqlservercentral.com/articles/T-SQL/62867/ 6. Changing this function to use NVARCHAR(MAX) will cause it to run twice as slow. It's just the nature of VARCHAR(MAX) whether it fits in-row or not. 7. Multi-machine testing for the method of using UNPIVOT instead of 10 SELECT/UNION ALLs shows that the UNPIVOT method is quite machine dependent and can slow things down quite a bit.

Credits: This code is the product of many people's efforts including but not limited to the following: cteTally concept originally by Iztek Ben Gan and "decimalized" by Lynn Pettis (and others) for a bit of extra speed and finally redacted by Jeff Moden for a different slant on readability and compactness. Hat's off to Paul White for his simple explanations of CROSS APPLY and for his detailed testing efforts. Last but not least, thanks to Ron "BitBucket" McCullough and Wayne Sheffield for their extreme performance testing across multiple machines and versions of SQL Server. The latest improvement brought an additional 15-20% improvement over Rev 05. Special thanks to "Nadrek" and "peter-757102" (aka Peter de Heer) for bringing such improvements to light. Nadrek's original improvement brought about a 10% performance gain and Peter followed that up with the content of Rev 07.

I also thank whoever wrote the first article I ever saw on "numbers tables" which is located at the following URL and to Adam Machanic for leading me to it many years ago. http://sqlserver2000.databases.aspfaq.com/why-should-i-consider-using-an-auxiliary-numbers-table.html

Revision History: Rev 00 - 20 Jan 2010 - Concept for inline cteTally: Lynn Pettis and others. Redaction/Implementation: Jeff Moden - Base 10 redaction and reduction for CTE. (Total rewrite)

Rev 01 - 13 Mar 2010 - Jeff Moden - Removed one additional concatenation and one subtraction from the SUBSTRING in the SELECT List for that tiny bit of extra speed.

Rev 02 - 14 Apr 2010 - Jeff Moden - No code changes. Added CROSS APPLY usage example to the header, some additional credits, and extra documentation.

Rev 03 - 18 Apr 2010 - Jeff Moden - No code changes. Added notes 7, 8, and 9 about certain "optimizations" that don't actually work for this type of function.

Rev 04 - 29 Jun 2010 - Jeff Moden - Added WITH SCHEMABINDING thanks to a note by Paul White. This prevents an unnecessary "Table Spool" when the function is used in an UPDATE statement even though the function makes no external references.

Rev 05 - 02 Apr 2011 - Jeff Moden - Rewritten for extreme performance improvement especially for larger strings approaching the 8K boundary and for strings that have wider elements. The redaction of this code involved removing ALL concatenation of delimiters, optimization of the maximum "N" value by using TOP instead of including it in the WHERE clause, and the reduction of all previous calculations (thanks to the switch to a "zero based" cteTally) to just one instance of one add and one instance of a subtract. The length calculation for the final element (not followed by a delimiter) in the string to be split has been greatly simplified by using the ISNULL/NULLIF combination to determine when the CHARINDEX returned a 0 which indicates there are no more delimiters to be had or to start with. Depending on the width of the elements, this code is between 4 and 8 times faster on a single CPU box than the original code especially near the 8K boundary. - Modified comments to include more sanity checks on the usage example, etc. - Removed "other" notes 8 and 9 as they were no longer applicable.

Rev 06 - 12 Apr 2011 - Jeff Moden - Based on a suggestion by Ron "Bitbucket" McCullough, additional test rows were added to the sample code and the code was changed to encapsulate the output in pipes so that spaces and empty strings could be perceived in the output. The first "Notes" section was added. Finally, an extra test was added to the comments above.

Rev 07 - 06 May 2011 - Peter de Heer, a further 15-20% performance enhancement has been discovered and incorporated into this code which also eliminated the need for a "zero" position in the cteTally table.

Rev 08 - 14 Sep 2013 - Jeff Moden - Add two more speed enhancements. 1. Change the first ORDER BY from (SELECT NULL) to just "N". 2. Add binary collation to the string calculations. **/ --===== Define I/O parameters (@pString VARCHAR(8000), @pDelimiter CHAR(1)) RETURNS TABLE WITH SCHEMABINDING AS RETURN --===== "Inline" CTE Driven "Tally Table" produces values from 0 up to 10,000... -- enough to cover NVARCHAR(4000) WITH E1(N) AS ( SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT 1 ), --10E+1 or 10 rows E2(N) AS (SELECT 1 FROM E1 a, E1 b), --10E+2 or 100 rows E4(N) AS (SELECT 1 FROM E2 a, E2 b), --10E+4 or 10,000 rows max cteTally(N) AS (--==== This provides the "base" CTE and limits the number of rows right up front -- for both a performance gain and prevention of accidental "overruns" SELECT TOP (ISNULL(DATALENGTH(@pString),0)) ROW_NUMBER() OVER (ORDER BY N) FROM E4 ), cteStart(N1) AS (--==== This returns N+1 (starting position of each "element" just once for each delimiter) SELECT 1 UNION ALL SELECT t.N+1 FROM cteTally t WHERE SUBSTRING(@pString,t.N,1) = @pDelimiter COLLATE Latin1_General_BIN ), cteLen(N1,L1) AS(--==== Return start and length (for use in substring) SELECT s.N1, ISNULL(NULLIF(CHARINDEX(@pDelimiter,@pString COLLATE Latin1_General_BIN,s.N1),0)-s.N1,8000) FROM cteStart s ) --===== Do the actual split. The ISNULL/NULLIF combo handles the length for the final element when no delimiter is found. SELECT ItemNumber = ROW_NUMBER() OVER(ORDER BY l.N1), Item = SUBSTRING(@pString, l.N1, l.L1) FROM cteLen l ;

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answered Sep 14, 2013 at 06:08 AM

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Jeff Moden
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I can suggest dynamic variant on base the same function fnParseList:

 declare @usercard   varchar(100)            
 -- it can be incapsulated in stored procedure or cross apply user card data           
 select  @usercard    = 'DP1100|DP1113|DP1200..DP1250|DP2300|DP2360..DP2366|DP65400|DP777777'            
 select  ( case when CHARINDEX('..', l.Data) <> 0
             then SUBSTRING(l.Data, 1, CHARINDEX('..', l.Data) - 1)
             else l.Data 
             end) as "Value 1",
         ( case when CHARINDEX('..', l.Data) <> 0
             then SUBSTRING(l.Data, CHARINDEX('..', l.Data) + 2, LEN(Data) - CHARINDEX('..', Data))
             else null 
           end ) as "Value 2"    
 from dbo.fnParseList('|', @usercard) as l
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answered Sep 12, 2013 at 08:04 AM

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asked: Jan 26, 2010 at 04:16 PM

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Last Updated: Sep 15, 2013 at 06:51 PM

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