I have a Sql Server 2012 AlwaysOn (availability group) 2 node cluster set up with a node and file share quorum. My question is if the file share becomes unavailable but the primary node is still healthy and serving data, will the whole cluster become unavailable and the primary node stop serving data ?
If only your file share would become unavailable it would not affect the availability group served by the primary node. If the secondary node goes down and after that the file share would become unavailable, your primary node would still be up and serve data. My suggestion to you is to install a SQL/AAG cluster in hyper-v/vmware on your laptop, then you can try out all the diffrent scenarios.